Like other pets, a dog is exposed to various infectious, invasive and non-communicable diseases. The most dangerous infectious diseases: rabies, Aujeszky’s disease, canine distemper, parvovirus enteritis, infectious hepatitis, leptospirosis, tetanus. By parasitic diseases include helminthiasis and contaminated by various ectoparasites (eg fleas), a non-contagious — diarrhea, rickets, poisoning, vitamin deficiency. Dog owner should have minimal knowledge of the normal physiological state of the animal, to be able to give him first aid, recognize the signs of ill health of the animal, is to both increase and decrease in excitability. Sometimes there is so-called forced (obsessions) movement when the dog walks around the circle in the same direction (circling), involuntary contraction of certain muscles (teak). The most characteristic feature of ill dog — dry and hot nose. Affected dogs may occur conjunctivitis, cough, red mucous membranes in the throat, the changing nature of bowel movements (color, texture, the number and frequency), poor appetite, increase or reduction of body temperature (normal temperature of 37,5-39 ° C), change in respiratory rate and pulse (normally the number of breaths, and ranges from 14 to 25-30 per minute, pulse rate of 70 to 120 beats per minute).
First aid or perform simple prescriptions veterinarian dog owner should skomplektovat first aid kit, which should be the most commonly used medications.
Solid dosage forms (powders, pills, tablets, capsules) directly to give the dog the oral cavity or with food. In the first case, the owner of the dog seats (in front of themselves, or by holding it between the legs), opens her mouth and enters the medication as far as possible, trying to get to the root of the tongue. Then, with one hand grasps the dog face for 1-2 minutes, and the other strokes it in the neck toward the esophagus. If so give the medication fails, it is mixed with a tasty food. Soft drugs (ointments) rubbed into the cleansed skin with which pre-cut hair. When lubricating parts of the skin of the head is necessary to make sure that the ointment does not get into your eyes. Liquid drugs (solutions, tinctures) is poured into the «bag» formed by pulling the mouth corner (point where converge the upper and lower lip); how and when giving powders, dog seated between his legs, then with one hand clamped to her face and lifted her up, and the other pulled his lips. In the resulting bag medicine slowly poured from the cup, spoon or syringe is introduced. It must be administered by a 10-15 ml (or cm3) and take breaks between batches, so that the dog has had time to swallow and choked, that is to cure not hit her in the respiratory tract.
The medicine can be introduced into the rectum (enema). Water enema should have a temperature of about 20-30 ° C; water containing drug depends on the size of a dog (from 0.25 to 1 liter). Further medicaments, there purification (only warm water) and nutrients (nutrient solution) enemas. With the introduction of the fluid should be good to keep a dog that she spun and did not sit down; a small amount of fluid can enter this via a syringe. Medicine, unpleasant taste and smell or irritate the mucous membranes, given in capsules. Subcutaneous (especially intravenous) infusion (injection) performs a veterinary specialist.
Body temperature was measured as follows. Shaking a thermometer, lubricate its working end (reservoir with mercury) Vaseline. Take the dog on your hands or put to one side. Left hand lifted the tail and gently with light circular movements end of the thermometer is introduced through the anus into the rectum. Take 5 minutes. After the procedure the end of the thermometer wash with warm soapy water and wipe with alcohol or cologne. The measurement is performed in the same clock (morning and evening).
Dog health guarantee, in addition to proper care and proper feeding are avoiding contact with stray animals; preventive vaccination against infectious diseases, especially rabies and canine distemper, regular veterinary examination of animals.
The life expectancy of a dog of 12 years. One year of a dog’s life is equivalent to approximately 7 years, a living man. Small and large dogs age faster than a medium-sized animals.