Diseases of the musculoskeletal system — is widespread in veterinary pathology pets.
Particularly striking manifestations of violations of the state of the limbs can be observed in the autumn and winter, when the air temperature changes, high humidity environment and the general decline of protective functions of the immune system of animals lead to an exacerbation of the problems associated with the state of the limbs.
In 70-80% of cases of lameness dogs cause is osteoarthritis (OA below). And if a person has joint diseases predominantly — a disease of the elderly, the animals suffer from inflammatory and degenerative processes in the joints, regardless of age.
Sufficiently clearly identified breed predisposition to the disease. The scientific literature reports of the occurrence of OA in retrievers, as well as the development of pathology in the dog breed rotveyller, chow chow, beagle. The presence of the link between body weight and the incidence of disease. It is believed that the disease occurs more frequently in individuals of large rocks and very rare in dogs weighing less than 18 kg. Localization osteoartroznyh changes in the joint has certain tendencies. Thus, some authors have observed most frequently changes in the shoulder joint, others have observed them in the hip. The literature describes occurrences of virtually all OA joints. The emergence of OA is also associated with the floor of the animal: dogs often suffer from this disease.
To understand what happens to the joints in the case of OA, we first consider the anatomy of the joint health and value of each of its components.
Anatomy of a Joint
The three main components of the joint:
1. Hyaline cartilage (articular cartilage) that covers the surface of the bones of the joint. Consists of collagen, giving it strength, and sodium hyaluronate which is responsible for maintaining the elasticity of cartilage.
2. The joint capsule is represented by the synovial membrane, which plays a huge role in the physiology of the joint. Her cell — synoviocytes produce articular fluid and sodium hyaluronate. Due to the content in the synovial membrane of sodium hyaluronate provided filtering properties of the joint capsule. The molecules form a three-dimensional spatial hyaluronate network, prevents the ingress of blood cells and non-specific components of joint fluid in the joint cavity.
3. Hollow joint comprising synovial fluid. Normal synovial fluid is clear, fibrous, pale yellow in color. The total protein content — approximately 70% below the protein content in the plasma. There are no fibrinogen, and the total number of cells is less than 200 / l. Simply stated, the composition of synovial fluid differs significantly from the composition of the blood. Additionally, synovial fluid, unlike blood plasma contains sodium hyaluronate, which are provided by the presence of its lubricating function and property imparting smoothness and elasticity of the articular surfaces.
What kind of substance — sodium hyaluronate?
Sodium hyaluronate synthesized synoviocytes — hyaluronic acid sodium salt. Often, the name is replaced more simply: «hyaluronic acid».
Sodium Hyaluronate — non-sulphated glycosaminoglycans, composed of repeating disaccharide of N-atsetilglikozaminglikana and sodium glucuronate. Sodium hyaluronate has the following properties:
Beauceron. Puppy Beauceron imparts viscosity of synovial fluid by means of three-dimensional structure of lubricity;
Beauceron. buy Beauceron puppy provides filtering function of the synovial membrane (regulates the composition of synovial fluid);
Beauceron. buy Beauceron puppy is part of hyaline cartilage and provides its elasticity;
Beauceron. buy Beauceron puppy plays an important role in providing cartilage with nutrients.
Thus it becomes clear that the joint is a complex system tesnosvyazannyh components, sodium hyaluronate, which is part of each component plays a leading role in the physiology of the joints. Violation of the interaction between the joint capsule, synovial fluid and cartilage leads to osteoarthritis.
Changes in the quantity and quality of sodium hyaluronate play a major role in the development of osteoarthritis and in the recovery stage after him.
Pathophysiology of OA
What happens to the joint in osteoarthritis?
Development of osteoarthritis can be divided into three stages:
1. Under vozdeysviya various traumatic factors (increased load on the joint, excessive weight of the animal, advancing the growth of muscle mass development of joint, trauma, hypothermia) not only damaged cartilage, but also cells synoviocytes and / or chondrocytes. This causes the output of catabolic enzymes that encourage the development of inflammation in the joint. Sodium hyaluronate has the property of a chemical complex formation with these enzymes. Thus, by using the neutralization hyaluronate catabolic enzymes, the amount of hyaluronate in synovial fluid is greatly reduced. The rate of reducing the number of molecules of sodium hyaluronate in the joint fluid production exceeds the rate of synoviocytes.
2. Restores missing quantity of hyaluronate in synovial fluid is due to the molecules that make up the network of the synovial membrane filtration. In this deficiency in the synovial fluid remains, since all received there molecules of hyaluronic acid directly form compounds with catabolic enzymes. The filtering function of the synovial membrane while markedly deteriorated. In the joint cavity begin to penetrate macromolecular proteins and red blood cells are not specific to the synovial fluid, synovial fluid accumulates leukocytes and decomposition products: inflammation enhanced. Animals experience pain and restriction of freedom of movement.
3. Next, fill the gap of sodium hyaluronate in the joint cavity is due to molecules in cartilage that leads to the change of the normal structure of the cartilage, loss of elasticity and the disruption of the flow of nutrients to the cartilage begins degenerative changes in the cartilage, followed by its destruction, increasing friction cartilage surfaces due to overgrowth of connective tissue fibers.
An additional factor — increased amount of fluid in the joint cavity, as a result of inflammation and disorders filtration. This increases the intra-articular pressure in the synovial membrane, and further increases the intercellular space. Pressure accumulated synovial fluid causes disturbances in the blood supply of the joint. If time does not stop these processes, the functioning of the joint may be permanently altered. Dog forever lost the ability to move freely and painlessly. The objective of the owner and the veterinarian is to prevent irreversible consequences of OA and give the animal the old joy of movement.
Common treatments for osteoarthritis
The primary goal of any treatment of diseases of the joints is to restore normal joint function as soon as possible. This means that degenerative processes in the joint should be stopped, but the structure of the tissue and synovial fluid content are given in the norm.
The most common method of treatment of osteoarthritis is the use of drugs: nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and corticosteroids. But, along with their fast (but brief!) Therapeutic effect, often note serious side effects of these drugs. Thus, NSAIDs cause the development of gastric ulcer, and corticosteroids Beauceron. buy Beauceron puppy metabolic disorder of the cartilage, the cartilage structure and dysfunction of the internal organs: liver, kidney and the endocrine system. Certainly, there are so acute cases that without the use of these drugs for quick relief of the animal can not do. But lately, a growing number of doctors tries to minimize the use of these drugs. Preference during the same treatment given to dogs with OA drugs based on natural components of the joint. Recent advances in this field is the use of sodium hyaluronate in the composition of medicinal preparations.
Until recently in the arsenal of a veterinary drugs were only for intake based on sodium hyaluronate (food additives and feed). But practicing veterinarians are very low digestibility of therapeutic agents based on sodium hyaluronate when taking them inside. Therapeutic effect when administered in the diet of affected animals supplementation is achieved after a few weeks or even months after the beginning of treatment. In addition, a prerequisite to successful treatment is practically constant preparation reception sick animals. This is due to the fact that the sodium hyaluronate — substance specific only for the connective tissue, ocular fluid, and synovial fluid. For it is not characteristic absorption through the gastrointestinal tract.
Hionat — the problem of osteoarthritis in dogs
The solution was found by Bayer, which developed on the basis of injectable sodium hyaluronate — Hionat.
Initially, the drug was developed and registered for use in arthritis horses. However, in the last few years in many countries Hionat successfully used to treat osteoarthritis dogs.
In 2004 Hionat entered the Russian market and passed approbation on the scientific basis of the Russian Peoples’ Friendship University, with the assistance of the Institute of Rheumatology (Yagnikov SA Kuleshov YA). Efficiency Hionata was confirmed by clinical tests on a group of dogs with osteoarthritis of the joints. Evidence of efficacy for the treatment of OA Hionata in dogs is a positive dynamic state of cartilage, synovial fluid and joint capsule, which is confirmed by laboratory data.
What caused the therapeutic effect Hionata and what is the difference from the other preparations based on sodium hyaluronate?
Active substance Hionata — sodium hyaluronate. The drug is manufactured by «Bayer», using new high-tech methods of biotechnology and has a high degree of purity. Perfect cleaning formulation is achieved by obtaining sodium hyaluronate is not from animal tissues, and in the process of microbiological synthesis: from the capsule coccoid forms of bacteria.
This unique technology eliminates the possibility of contamination of alien animal protein. The high degree of purity Hionata allows its use not only for injection into the joint but also intravenously. This type of injection used for sodium hyaluronate for the first time, made possible by the intensive research conducted by the company «Bayer» and the revolutionary technology of production.
Already after one injection Hionata intraarticular or intravenous observed active antiinflammatory drug action, normalization of the filter function of the synovial membrane of the synovial fluid.
Anti-inflammatory effect due Hionata chemical capability it contains sodium hyaluronate associated with mediators of inflammation, which leads to a stop the cascade of pathogenic processes in the joints of patients. Moreover, the sodium hyaluronate is entered by intraarticular or intravenous, embedded in the filter network synovial membrane and stops the flow of the joint for nonspecific synovial fluid components. The most important link in the pharmacological effects Hionata is to restore the normal operation of the synovial membrane cells, synoviocytes, and to develop their internal sodium hyaluronate. I.e. pharmacodynamics Hionata be compared with the effect of vaccination: the entered drug stimulates the inner body (joint in this case) to develop the necessary substances (sodium hyaluronate).
Thus, after 2 — 3-fold application Hionata dogs with osteoarthritis restores normal physiology of the joint and removing the need for the ongoing treatment of a sick animal. With more prolonged use Hionata achieved restoration of degenerative processes in cartilage and filling deffektov cartilage.
Nowadays Hionat used by many veterinarians and plays an increasingly important role in the treatment of joint disease in dogs.
Material provided by Bayer.
Used data from articles Zabeginoy EF, Savitsky sitting is .; Yagnikova SA, Kuleshova JA, Zakharova MM, Rodenska Lopovok-SG; Davydova EB .; materials of foreign literature.