Application technology alcoholic hot compress.
When slowly absorbable inflammatory infiltrate, the initial stages of inflammation ostrognoynyh before signs of purulent fusion of fabrics, subacute tenditah tendovaginitah and apply a compress of alcohol warming. It is stronger than water. Using 70% and 96% alcohol. The higher the alcohol concentration, the faster resolves the inflammatory infiltrate. Therapeutic effect compress enhanced if added to it iodine tincture, salicylic acid, resorcinol, and others. In this case, the alcohol concentration is reduced. This drug is called compress. It causes a rapid onset of congestion, which applies to deep-lying tissue, muscles, periosteum, bone marrow and peripheral blood mark polycythemia, decreased segmented leukocytes, increased lymphocytes and monocytes.
Water hot compress.
To reduce pain and to accelerate the resorption of inflammatory infiltrates water used hot compress. It is a four-layer bandage: first layer — wet superimposed on the body surface; second — the moisture-proof; third — the heat-carrying; fourth — fixing. For wet layer can be used fabric, gauze folded in several layers or other material. This layer compress should be larger than the painful focus. For the second layer is applied kompressnuyu oilcloth, rubberized cloth, cellophane, and waxed or oiled paper, other moisture-proof barrier. This layer perimeter should be 2-3 cm higher than the previous. For the third layer uses a thick layer of gray wool sheet, a piece of flannel or cloth, jacket, or other heat conductive material is bad. This layer compress the perimeter must be much greater than the second layer. All three layers are fixed fourth of bandage, gauze or thin cloth.
Before applying water warming compresses the body surface of the animal should be washed with soap and water and wipe dry with a towel. The painful part is usually compress applied after the preparation of three layers. To do this on a table or on the hands of the assistant put heat-carrying material, it waterproof, then wet, soaked in cold water (12-15 ° C) and the filter so that the remaining water in it could not escape and invade other layers of hot compress after his overlay. Thus prepared compress is applied to the surface of the body at once or sequentially.
Pet owners should remember that water hot compress should hold well, do not cause pain on pressure and not impede circulation. The mechanism of its therapeutic action is what happens after applying a cold wet layer contact with warm skin painful area of the body. Thus in the beginning there is a brief peripheral vasoconstriction (normal reaction to the cold), then their expansion. Between the skin layer and compresses water vapor generated, whereby there is a long portion of the patient rewarming. Change the water hot compress every 4-5 hours, then wiping with a dry towel sick site. Compress replacement should be performed quickly to cool the surface. With a weak temperature reaction skin smeared with turpentine.
Water hot compress provides good vennuyu flushing, causing edema in the subepithelial and other deep-tissue, increases lymphatic circulation, osmotic processes, reducing pain, promotes the gradual resorption of the inflammatory infiltrate.
To prevent severe skin maceration recommended Burovsky water mixed with a liquid (1: 1) or to apply a 3% solution of it. If significant skin maceration compress canceled and skin smear a 5% solution of potassium permanganate or zinc ointment and put a cotton bandage.
Assign to enhance irritant, and also in the case where the use of other warming compresses efficiently. To compress the drug can be used 10-25% of sodium bicarbonate dissolved in hot water, 4% solution of boric acid, 2-3% solution of Lysol or creoline, pharmaceutical grade alcohol camphor or camphor oil, 5% solution ihtiola. To enhance irritation hot compress is recommended to moisten the skin from a spray mixture of turpentine and camphor alcohol in a ratio of 1:15. Medicinal compresses is recommended to use no more than three times within 4 hours so as not to cause the skin disorder (maceration, dermatitis, hair loss).
The use of wet dressings without alcohol drying heat-carrying layer.
Water and alcohol warming packs can not be imposed on infected wounds, in progressive inflammatory processes accompanied by severe swelling and pronounced infiltration, as they can cause a sharp and significant increase in extravasation interstitial pressure in the inflammatory process. In such cases, alcohol is applied wet-dry dressings without heat-carrying layer.
Medical procedure acting on the body on the principle of a hot compress. Dry wrapping sick animal can be carried burlap, blankets, cloths designed for warming the whole body, and reduce heat. Wet wrapping used for warming parts of the body, particularly the chest of the animal. Use a wrap on the principle warming compresses: folded in several layers of burlap Grey Fabrics or moistened with warm water, wring out and put on the body of the animal, then covered with oilcloth or cellophane, top blanket or blanket and tie a bandage or rope. Procedure duration of 40-50 minutes. Then a damp cloth and clean oilcloth, pet dry blanket cover (blanket) and placed in a warm room.
As heaters often use different sizes and shapes of rubber bags filled with hot water, as well as conventional medical warmers or special rubber tanks. Warming the large surface of the body (abdomen, chest) animal use special double cloths, which are divided into 4-6 chambers (pockets) where to invest conventional medical warmers. Horse blanket on the animal’s body to strengthen a broad straps. Warming the body of the animal can be used heating pads. They are kept for 1-2 hours and in the presence of a temperature regulator — to 6 hours.
Clay as a medicine.
Clay — mineral product of the soil. In color it is sometimes brown, yellow and gray, has a high ductility, negligible heat capacity, physical-chemical and biological properties. For therapeutic purposes, the clay can be applied in any color. It easily absorbs water and becomes very hard when dry. Biological effects caused by thermal clay, compression and chemical factors. With the purpose of treatment using both hot and cold clay (A.D.Belov, I.M.Belyakov, V.A.Lukyanovsky, 1983).
Hot clay is used instead of hot baths, in the form of applications for deep heating of tissues and stimulate resorption of chronic residual processes, scar contractures and rebirth. Technique clay treatment easier feasible and available on the distal extremities of animals.
Hot clay appointed for bruises, joint stiffness, chronic synovitis and periostitis. Clay kneaded with boiling water until a thick smooth paste, then cooled to 60 ° C, spread on the canvas or four folded gauze and applied to the affected area and the top covered with oilcloth insulated quickly. Warm-up time 30 minutes.
In order to strengthen irritating to the skin of the animal to the clay, you can add birch tar, turpentine, Lysol, Ichthyol, sodium chloride, salicylic acid, and other means. The best therapeutic effect is provided by the addition of 10% calcium chloride solution is hot. Calcined clay is heated to 40 ° C and used in the form of applications with Cover the insulating layer. Replacement applications should be as cool clay (not allowed its cooling to the temperature of the heated area). After completion of the wash it with 2% solution of sodium chloride.
Cold clay is effective in the initial stage ostroprotekayuschih mastitis in cows in rheumatic inflammation of the hooves and hoof injuries in cattle and horses. The clay was mixed with cold water until a thick homogeneous. 1 liter of water add a tablespoon of vinegar. This improves the cooling effect of the clay. Cold clay is heated slowly and takes heat from the tissues in the affected area more than a cold compress. Application of cold clay as foot baths causes vasoconstriction, reducing exudative inflammatory processes, the pressure on the fabric on the principle of a pressure bandage, with bruises profilaktiruet formation of large hematomas, lymph and gemolimfoekstravazatov. In the initial stages of inflammation and anti-inflammatory effect boleutolyayusche.
To enhance the cooling effect and the use of irritating cooling solutions and mixtures:
Beauceron. buy Beauceron puppy mixture of sodium nitrate 5 parts
ammonia powder 5 parts
19 parts of water.
Beauceron. buy Beauceron puppy mixture lowers the temperature to 13 ° C:
potassium nitrate 1 part
1 part distilled water.
Beauceron. buy Beauceron puppy mixture lowers the temperature to 16 ° C:
ammonium nitrate 1 part
ammonium carbonate 1 part.
Beauceron. buy Beauceron puppy mixture lowers the temperature to 13 ° C:
weak nitric acid 4 parts
sodium-phosphorus acidic 9 parts.
Beauceron. buy Beauceron puppy mixture lowers the temperature to 10 ° C:
Sodium sulfur sour 8 pieces
concentrated hydrochloric acid 5 parts.
Beauceron. buy Beauceron puppy mixture lowers the temperature to 17 ° C:
Sodium sulfur-acidic 3 parts
weak hydrochloric acid, 4 parts.
Beauceron. buy Beauceron puppy mixture lowers the temperature to 10 ° C:
the application of snow to increase the cooling effect on one portion was added 1 part of sodium chloride.
Paraffin — distillate oil or dry distillation of brown coal, peat, shale. It represents the number of saturated hydrocarbons contained in the mineral oils and resins with melting point 28-75 ° C and above. Its release in the form of plates which do not contain water. For therapeutic use the yellow and white wax with a melting point of 44-65 ° C, but the most suitable high-quality white wax (GOST 784-42) with a melting point of 50-54 ° C. It does not irritate the skin, while hardening has a compression effect. The therapeutic effect is caused by high heat capacity (10 times greater than water), low thermal conductivity and good ductility. The temperature at which it passes from a liquid state to a solid, almost 20-30 ° C higher than the temperature of the skin. Therefore paraffin heated to 70-80 ° C, does not cause skin burns. Its high heat capacity and thermal conductivity provides a small long and deep heating of tissues at the site overlay.
At home with paraffin should have a water bath or everything necessary for its organization: razlivatelnuyu spoon, chemical thermometer with readings of more than 120 ° C, brush material for subsequent insulation (wool, quilted jackets), gauze for paraffin gauze applications and oilcloth. Paraffin wax was heated to 90-100 ° C and cooled to 20 ° C. When heated in a water bath of paraffin monitor so that it is not exposed to water, such as the wax can cause skin burns. If the water got, wax must be heated to 120 ° C and evaporate it. Paraffin is used to treat wounds, sterilize with IN-120 ° C for 20-30 minutes. Paraffin used, can also be used for treatment, but before the application must be sterilized (at 120-150 ° C for 30 minutes), then filtered and add 10-15%.
Place the overlay cut out a wax or shave, wash with soap and water and wipe dry. Better after washing skin wiped with 96% alcohol or an alcohol-ether. The most frequently used paraffin to form paraffin applications, paraffin gauze preparations and applications paraffin (paste).
Paraffin baths — a layering (1.5-2 cm thick) coating heated to 65-70 ° C. paraffin on the skin. From above it is necessary to impose a polyethylene film (or oilcloth) and wrap up warm. Paraffin is removed after 3-4 hours.
Paraffin gauze applications used in different parts of the body. On the prepared area of the skin is applied 2-3 layers of melted paraffin, then layered (yes 5-8 layers) gauze corresponding value (pre-heated them in a pan with melted paraffin and gently squeeze). The top is covered with oilcloth or plastic wrap and wrap up warm. Complete the procedures strengthen bandage. Change applications after 4-6 hours, doing massage and heat wrapped.
Paraffin baths are used on the limbs. Initially applied to the skin 2-3 layers of wax. Then wraps oilcloth (plastic wrap) so that between the wrapper and suffered a layer of wax formed in the space of 2-3 cm in the form of a sleeve. Pribintovyvayut its lower end and an open upper poured molten paraffin temperature of 65-70 ° C. Atop wrappers impose jacket or wool layer of 2-3 cm and pribintovyvayut. You can make advance of oilcloth tube of appropriate dimensions. Paraffin bath heated deep tissue. Change them after 4-6 hours or even a day later. After removing the paraffin baths make tissue massage and heat wrapped.
Under the supervision of a veterinarian wax can also be used as dressings in diseases gipsoparafinovyh hooves, alternating with air baths.
With a strong sensitivity of the skin used paraffin oil or paraffin-Vaseline compound. Such wax is better separated from the skin.
Mountain or earthy smelling wax — dark brown or black waxy mass with the smell of oil. It includes 6885% Ceresin (solid, bulk) and liquid carbohydrates (paraffin 3-7%), mineral oil (40%) and mechanical impurities (1-33%). Melting point 52-85 ° C. For ozokeritotherapy better use medical ozokerit with a melting point 52-68 ° C.
Ozokerite on thermal capacity exceeds paraffin, but inferior to him in the thermal conductivity. He has a strong compression and therapeutic (anti-inflammatory, analgesic and absorbing) effect, increases local blood circulation and nutrition of tissues, creating for a long time active hyperemia, promotes the resorption of pathological formations and reduces pain.
Ozokeritotherapy spend just as paraffin.
Ozokerite used as lozenges. For this purpose the bottom of the cuvette placed two layers of cheesecloth and pour melted to 70 ° C, ozokerite. After hardening viscous consistency to the cake is removed from the cell and the gauze side overlap on the right place. Proceed as and when using paraffin gauze applications. Uncheck the tortillas in a few hours.
Ozokerito- and paraffin should not be used with inflamed wounds gnoynonekroticheskim melting fabrics, lymphangitis, lymphadenitis, fever, kidney diseases.
Psammotherapy — sand treatment. Sand baths are solar or artificial heat. The therapeutic effect is due to the transfer of sand heat. To use sand baths completely dry, clean and smooth sand. Sand is hygroscopic, so it does not prevent perspiration animal. Indications are the same as in the clay treatment. You can use the sun (natural) sand baths.
Small animals make shared baths, large — only local. To a sand bath used sand, heated to 55-60 ° C. Procedure duration of 30-40 minutes.
Staging kroveotvlekayuschih cans.
Vacuum therapy — physiotherapy using krovootvlekayuschih cans. They are used in pneumonia, pleurisy, mikrobronhitah, traumatic myositis and rheumatic origin, neuritis, neuralgia, occurrence of stagnation in the pulmonary circulation. For vakuumterapii can use glass medical jars with capacity of 50-70 ml or half-liter glass jars with thickened edges. Recent use large animals.
Before setting cans cut out a hair, the skin is cleaned, washed, dried and lubricated with petroleum jelly or a thick green soap. Rarefied air at bank creates amended briefly grilled piece of cotton dipped in alcohol or ether. Bank applied to the skin and to better strengthen awhile hold his hand, and the skin is absorbed by 1-2 centimeters. In inflammatory processes in thoracic cavity of large animals on each side of the chest is applied 4-6 (10) cans.Banks are removed after 20-30 minutes. To do this with one hand slightly tilted toward the bank, and the other fingers on the opposite side lightly pressed on the skin at the edge. At this time, the bank enters the air, gradually eliminates the vacuum and the bank is eliminated. The therapeutic effect of cans connected with mechanical stimulation obtained in the respective areas of the body congestive hyperemia. In places cans celebrate local (in the skin and subcutaneous tissue) hemorrhage, appear active products of tissue decay that causes stimulation of metabolism. This activates the function retiloendoteliya, increases the body’s defenses and general resistance.
Apply as a therapeutic agent, irritating the skin and has a stimulating effect on the body. Mustard causes activation of neuro-trophic or functions, blood and lymph formation, accelerated resolution of pathological processes. Piglets in the area of the skin with a rare scalp can use medical mustard and mustard clover. Mustard porridge prepared as follows. Sareptskoj kneaded mustard seeds, soaked in warm water (40-50 ° C) and after dissolution (10-15 minutes), rubbing with a spatula against the grain to obtain a thin layer. After that, cover with a damp linen cloth and plastic film and to prevent premature drying, volatilization of essential oils and heat conservation is applied on top of warmed cotton-gauze bandage (pillow) for 10-15 minutes youngsters and animals with a thin skin and up to 2-3 hours with animals thick skin. After the procedure, mustard wash with warm water, the animal is wrapped up warmly.
For the preparation of mustard mustard powder fresh weight (300-400 g) moistened with warm water (40-50 ° C) and ground to produce semi-pasty consistency. Mustard weight (test) also rubbed against the grain to clean skin, cover the top with a wet cloth or paper and insulated. We keep youngsters yellow card 15 minutes from adult pigs, cattle, horses — 30-40 minutes. After removing the mustard plaster skin thoroughly washed with warm water, wipe and wrapped. If applied correctly mustard, 4-6 hours appears a distinct inflammatory swelling, which is held up to three days. If mustard is required to keep for a long time (3-4 hours), it is mixed with the flour in half (or cut).
Therapeutic mud — young growths on the bottom surface of salt and fresh water bodies. Sometimes they are found on the surface of the land. Distinguish silt mud of lake, sea and marsh origin and peat — bog origin. Close to the swamp mud mud are of volcanic origin (A.D.Belov, 1983).
Dirt on the physico-chemical properties of heterogeneous. The relative density of equal to 1.1-1.8, but mainly depends on the content of water and mineral substances. The thermal conductivity of the mud is 1.5-2 times higher than that of water. Therefore mud cools slowly and gives a long heat.
The mechanical properties of peat characterized ductility and toughness, which are dependent on the water content. With its low content of the mud is more plastic, so when applied to the body of the animal takes its shape. In the mud are three components: crystalline skeleton, colloidal reaction and mud mortar. All therapeutic mud have fine structure, homogeneity and basically have a greasy texture. Typically, they are used as thermal procedures.
Hot mud applied to the skin of the animal, by neurohumoral factors activates blood-lymph circulation, increases the redox processes and improves tissue nutrition.
Dirt can be applied to mucous membranes, placed in special bags (pouches) . Immunobiological Mud stimulates the body’s defenses, normalizes physiological functions of an infected animal, reduces inflammatory reaction (edema, infiltration, proliferative, fibrinous and scar tissue). Available in mud chemicals are absorbed and have a therapeutic effect. Calcium, iron, aluminum and silica contained in the mud, give them an astringent action. Sapropel has a drying effect on moist tissue. Mud temperature of 42 ° C, first reduce blood pressure, and then increase it compared to the baseline.
sapropel is a good remedy for weeping eczema and burns in Putao in horses. Duration of the procedure up to 45-60 minutes. Mud bandage is applied to the affected area two days in a row. After the procedure, areas of damaged skin are left open. Most often recommend the use of mud in chronic inflammatory conditions (diseases of the muscles, ligaments, joints, bones, prolonged and weak healing wounds, cracked nipples, phlegmons corolla and crumb cracks hoof horn)
Among the biologically active components in the mud contains substances similar to antibiotics, vitamins, hormones, enzymes, bacteriophages and substances like choline and histamine. Better use of dirt under the supervision of veterinarians.
Mud is not used for cardiovascular disease, kidney disease, malignancy, acute inflammatory processes, infectious diseases.
sapropel and recommended as a supplement to the diet at doses: piglets under 2 months of age — 50-150 grams from 2 to 4 months — 300, from 4 to 6 month — 400; calves — respectively 50, 50-300, 300-500; sheep — 200 grams; sows, cows — up to 1.5 kg per head (A.D.Belov, 1983).
Massage — special mechanical effects on the skin and the deep-lying tissue for therapeutic and prophylactic purposes. Distinguish active massage (metered load on the animal in motion) and passive (performed by hand or with special tools).
During the massage there is flushing of the skin, improves metabolism, increases efficiency, limited inflammatory reaction, accelerates resorption of hemorrhages, exudates, proliferative formed razrostov connective tissue activated phagocytosis, strengthens the nervous and cardiovascular system. When moving the animal decreases blood levels of ketone bodies. Active massage (movement, walking) is the basis of the functional therapy, strengthens the health of animals. In some cases, massage provides a good therapeutic effect in combination with heat treatments, paraffin-ozocerite baths and other physiotherapy methods.
Methods and massage technique is as follows. Massaged parts of the animal skin is cleaned and washed. Also wash your hands clean. To facilitate the use of massage talc, which is slightly rubbed his hands. On the skin of the animal sprinkle it impossible, as when performing the massage he closes the mouth of the excretory ducts of the sebaceous and sweat glands, and complicate the allocation of their secretions out. Massage is performed in the course of the lymphatic vessels, with full muscle relaxation. Begin with a light massage strokes surrounding areas, and then the area of the pathological focus. Massage begin immediately after the disease. For bruises his conduct after 3 days, when synovitis and joint dystrophy — 4-5 days from the onset, after reduction of dislocation — in 10-12 days. Massage is performed 1-2 times a day for 10-15 minutes. Active massage is done on a daily basis, the dosage and gradually increasing the walk, or wiring work load. Massage can be combined with passive movements, novocaine blockade and other methods of physiotherapy. All thermal procedures should be performed prior to the massage. The basic techniques of massage, stroking, rubbing, kneading, effleurage, vibration.
Stroking — receiving massage conducted sliding movements, mainly in places where the large subcutaneous veins and lymph nodes. There are the following varieties of strokes: palm massaged flat surface of the body (hip, neck); cruciform reception — work with both hands at the crossed fingers, massaging the body surface having a rounded shape (shin, forearm); schiptseobrazny reception — tissue subjected massage, between the index and middle fingers on one hand and the thumb of the masseur — on the other. Apply with finger massage flexor tendon and calf muscle. The duration of this type of massage — 10-12 minutes.
Trituration — reception when the skin and deeply lying tissue ground in the circumferential direction of several fingers of one or both hands.
Kneading is slid, trapping, is lifted, pressing and squeezing the muscle tissue. Moving fulling (felting) is performed on the lower extremity. It allows you to massage the tissue or tendon between the thumb and fingers through his hands sliding pressure.
Effleurage — method of massage, consisting of a series of jerky, successive blows dealt fingers, palms, fists. The following types of tapping: hack — spend wrists; pat — short staccato strokes inflicted palm side of the hand; punch — a kind of tapping palm. Tapping is performed percussion or wooden hammer (weighing up to 40 grams) of bone not covered by muscles to promote healing during callus formation.
Vibration — a kind of massage technique, which consists of a very small and fast repetitive oscillating movements committed fingers or a special device — vibrator.
Inhalation — the method of administration into the airways and lungs of water vapor and with it drugs. Use the inhaler manufacturing and various adaptations. The pet owner can use for inhalation devices in the form of sleeves, bags (sacks), made of thick fabric. For large animals sleeve length should be 80-90 inches, the upper edge of the circle — about 80 inches. For fixing at the back of the animal to the bag sew two elastics. Before inhalation at the bottom of the bag (sacks) put a good hay or hay trash, sawdust, cloth closed and brewed with boiling water. Add 10-20 grams of baking soda, 20-30 drops of turpentine, thymol, menthol. Thereafter, the bag is fixed on the head of the animal. The temperature of the inhaled vapor should not be above 45-50 ° C, the duration of a procedure for 15-20 minutes. When using volatile funds (thymol, menthol, turpentine, eucalyptus oil, tar) can be used inhalers or adaptations without heating. Inhalation should be done in a warm room. In a cold room can display animals subjected to inhalation, no earlier than one hour after the procedure.